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Liggy's and Dee's modified NEC and Optiarc firmwares

Abbreviations and special terms explained

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Binflash is an application for dumping and flashing firmwares from NEC DVD Burners


Bitsetting means the capability to change the booktype when writing a DVD disc. Only the booktype of DVD+R, DVD+RW and DVD+R DL can be changed. On DVD-R, DVD-RW and DVD-R DL the booktype is already applied to the disc during the production process.


The booktype is an identifier on DVD discs. It indicates whether you have a DVD-ROM, DVD-R, DVD+RW or whatever kind of disc. Some DVD players do not recognize every booktype. For this reason, some burners offer the ability to change the booktype of a DVD+R, DVD+RW or DVD+R DL disc. This functionality is called bitsetting.



In order to compensate tolerances during the manufacturing process of a drive, some adjustments are stored in a calibration area of the drive. But this memory area also keeps track of region code changes or booktype settings and it contains a drive serial number that is written to DVD-R, DVD-RW and DVD-R DL discs.


The Content Scrambling System (CSS) is a copy protection mechanism that is used to protect DVD Video. It consist of of a challenge response handshake between drive and player, player keys that allow blacklisting hacked player keys, a title key and algorithms to scramble the data. Because of some weaknesses, this protection was broken in 1999 already and several programs are available to decrypt protected DVDs. Using these programs may however be forbidden in your country.



To dump a firmware means to extract the firmware from a drive.



ECC is the abbreviation for Error Correction Code. It means storing checksums in addition to the user data and is used to detect and if possible correct errors. When scanning a disc with your burner, you are able to select the number of sectors that are used for error correction calculations.



The firmare is the main software that controls your drive. It contains functionality to make a disc spin, to open or close the tray or to react to IDE commands. NEC DVD burners contain two different firmwares. The first firmware (safe mode firmware) is started when the drive is powered on. It validates a checksum of the main firmware and starts this one if the checksum is correct. Otherwise it stays in safe mode and only accepts the commands for flashing a new firmware. This state can be recognised by a blinking drive LED


Flashing a drive means to update the firmware of your drive with a different version.





IDE is the abbreviation for Integrated Drive Electronics. It is an interface for controlling devices like hard discs and optical drives



A connector block that allows configuration of devices. NEC drives have such a jumper block on the rear for selecting Master, Slave or Cable Select (CS)





Media comes in various types and quality. DVD-R, -RW, DVD-R DL, DVD+R, +RW, DVD+R DL, CD-R or CD-RW. Regarding quality, poor quality may often lead to unreadable discs.






Region Code

The movie industry decided to split the world into 6 parts with each of them having their own region code. DVD players need to be set to a region code and are not allowed to playback discs with a different one.


Some drives reduce the reading speed on single and double layer Video DVD discs to reduce the noise during playback and to increase the time needed for copying (ripping) the entire disc to a harddisc. This "feature" is called Riplock. Some modified firmwares are however able to remove this riplock


The Region Protection Scheme (RPC) was implemented to control the region code on DVD. In the beginning there was a choice between RPC1 and RPC2 drives. RPC1 drives do not check for a valid region code and leave this task up to the DVD playback software. Several ways were found to circumvent this restriction, so manufacturers were limited to producing RPC2 only drives since October 2001. In RPC2 the drives control the region code. A user is allowed to change it 5 times until a drive gets locked. The vendor may reset this lock 4 times but only few manufacturers offer this service to their customers. There are a few tools however that allow issueing this vendor reset for some brands. Fortunately several modified RPC1 firmwares for many drives are available that do not care about region codes.





USB is another interface for connecting devices like optical drives. While USB1 is very slow and was intended for devices like mice or keyboards, USB2 is fast enought for controlling DVD drives. However most enclosures with USB2 interface are too slow to allow 16X reading and writing






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